electronic injection system

How the electronic injection system works

Internal combustion engines have been around for more than 150 years, and have maintained their basic principles to this day. However, as a result of technological evolution and the needs of an increasingly informed market, due to the search for more economical, efficient and ecological engines, brands have been forced to evolve. One of the major innovations in this type of engine was electronic injection.

But what is electronic injection? In this article we will try to explain what it’s for, in a brief and simple way, and what are the great advantages of this component in comparison to its predecessor – the carburetor.


Let’s start with a basic principle: what is electronic injection for?

A car with an internal combustion engine needs fuel to run, but what kind of fuel? Diesel, gasoline? Certainly! However, there is another “fuel” for the explosion engines to work: the oxygen that is present in the air. Without air, the combustion process would not be possible. Take diesel engines as an example: they compress the air until it reaches a certain temperature capable of causing the fuel to auto-ignite.

Since engines are highly precision machines, it is essential to have the right amount of air in and fuel in the cylinder for an efficient operation.

The electronic injection system (and in older engines, the carburetor) regulates the injection of fuel into the engine’s cylinders.


Carburetor vs electronic injection

The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Moey in 1826. However, the person responsible for patenting the modern carburetor was Karl Benz, the founder of the well-known Mercedes-Benz brand.

Carburetors are mechanical parts and, until the rise of electroni injection systems, they were the most common method of supplying fuel to the engine adopted by the automotive industry.

There are 4 points where these two systems are easily distinguished:


1. Versatility

The carburetor had many setbacks as it could not be used in diesel vehicles. Electronic injection, in turn, is available for diesel and gasoline vehicles in electronic and mechanical variations.


2. Performance

An electronically controlled fuel injection system can constantly adjust the fuel supply to the cylinders, enabling better performance. A carburetor is unable to measure the correct air-to-fuel ratio and is affected by changes in air pressure and fuel temperature.


3. Fuel savings

An electronic injection system delivers fuel in just the right amount, resulting in less waste and better efficiency. A carburetor, on the other hand, is not able to adjust the proportion of fuel according to the conditions of the engine, leading to greater waste.


4. Maintenance

Car maintenance is the only parameter in which a carburetor overcomes electronic fuel injection.

Carburetors are very simple to repair and clean. The repair of an injection system, on the other hand, requires a more careful intervention or even its replacement.



What is the electronic injection system?

In an attempt to keep up with market demands and environmental requirements – meaning more efficient and less polluting engines -, the fuel injection system used in modern cars has changed a lot in recent years. Although it has the same purpose as its carburetor precursor, an electronic fuel injection system works very differently.

The first prototypes appeared in the 1950s, but electronic fuel injection was only widely adopted by car manufacturers in 1980. Today, the vast majority of cars have these systems incorporated.

An electronic fuel injection system consists of a set of components, including injectors, oxygen sensors, electric fuel pump with pressure regulator and ECU.

The control of this dosage process of air and fuel is controlled by the ECU that monitors and controls several vital functions, such as air pressure, engine temperature,and fuel pressure. This system, with the data it receives from the various sensors, knows the exact amount of fuel and air to be supplied to the cylinders in order to maximize their performance.

Over the years, electronic fuel injection will become increasingly relevant and, consequently, will offer greater efficiency and safety.

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